Pets, Livestock, and HABs
How can dogs be exposed to HABs?
Animals can be exposed to Harmful Algal Blooms HABs and associated toxins by:
- Contacting any affected water body including lakes, rivers, or ponds. Because animals are attracted to cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), they drink the water and eat algal material. Dogs in particular lick algae caught in their fur after being in the water.
- Consuming water and algae from residential pools or decorative ponds.
- Ingesting blue-green algae health supplements.
How can I keep my dog safe from HABs?
- Check if a waterbody has a reported bloom by checking the HAB Reports Map, contacting the waterbody manager, and looking for posted advisory signs.
- Check to see if the water has a scum, algal mats, or is discolored.
- Do not let your dog drink, wade, or swim in HAB-affected water.
- Do not let your dog eat scum or algal material.
- Wash your pets with clean water after lake or river play. Provide clean drinking water.
What are signs of possible cyanobacterial toxin poisoning in dogs?
Animals can experience symptoms within minutes to days following exposure to the cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins). Symptoms they might experience include vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, difficulty breathing, seizures, or death. See the HAB-related Illness Tracking webpage for information on previously reported dog illnesses related to HABs in California.
If your pet experiences these symptoms after exposure, contact your veterinarian immediately. A veterinarian fact sheet is available. For additional assistance, contact the 24-hour ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center hotline at (888) 426-4435. A $65 consultation fee may be applied.
- 1-page Fact Sheet for Pet Owners (June 2018)
- California Waterfowl - Keeping Your Dog Safe From Harmful Algal Blooms (September 10, 2018)
- USEPA - How to keep your Dog Safe from Toxic Algae
How can livestock or other large animals be exposed to HABs?
Livestock can be poisoned by ingestion of algal material either in the water or as dried mats on the shore, or from drinking water where algal decay has released considerable toxins into the water. Sheep are more likely to be affected than cattle as they tend to drink from the edges while cattle often wade into the waterbody. Ingestion of blue-green algae supplements can be a potential source of cyanotoxins.
How can I keep my livestock and other large animals safe from HABs?
Livestock water supplies should be checked daily in summer and autumn for algal blooms. Treat all algal blooms as possibly toxic to livestock and prevent stock access unless the algae are identified and the level of toxin determined. Avoid administering blue-green algae supplements unless shown to be free of cyanotoxins.
What are signs of possible cyanobacterial toxin poisoning in livestock or other large animals?
Poisoning will depend on cyanotoxin levels present and ingested, the susceptibility of the livestock, and the amount of food in the animal’s gut, which will help counter the effect of the toxin. All animals are at risk of poisoning from cyanotoxins. In North America, cyanotoxin poisonings in cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, chickens, and turkeys have been reported. Most of the poisonings were fatal and were associated with visible scum of cyanobacteria. In 2017, a large cattle mortality event at a reservoir in southeastern Oregon resulted from exposure to microcystin (Dreher et al., 2019). More information is available from the Western Australia Government webpage on livestock poisoning from algal blooms. See the HAB-related Illness Tracking webpage for information on previously reported livestock illnesses related to HABs in California.
Resources are available to assist veterinarians to respond to incidents of suspected HAB-related illness in animals. The California Water Boards provide limited funding for confirmatory testing of HAB-related poisonings in canines, and can assist with HAB identification and early response in suspected exposure areas. State or local agencies can post advisory signs at hazardous waterbodies to prevent additional animal poisonings.
CLINICAL SIGNS, DIAGNOSIS and TREATMENT: Rapid diagnosis, decontamination, and aggressive and rapid treatment is critical, particularly for significant hepatic symptoms. See the 2017 Veterinarian Reference and Bates (2018) review on Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) exposure in dogs. A case report of successful treatment of microcystin toxicity using oral cholestyramine is provided by Rankin et al. (2013).
POTENTIAL FUNDING: Limited funding may be available to cover physical examination of ill dogs with suspected poisoning. For California licensed veterinarians when reimbursement for testing is approved by the Water Board. Funding may be available to cover costs of all the following:
- live canine physical examination
- canine necropsy at your clinic
- algal toxin analysis
- canine clinical specimen collection (vomit, stomach contents, serum, urine, liver, and/or kidney)
- specimen shipment to an analytical laboratory approved by the Water Board
Apply for funding by completing the Illness Information Section of the HAB Portal bloom incident form.
REPORTING: Reporting confirmed or suspected cases will help prevent other animal and human exposures to cyanobacterial toxins. Please complete the Illness Information Section on the Freshwater Bloom Incident Report Form. See the HAB-related Illness Tracking webpage for information on previously reported animal illnesses related to HABs in California.
- Veterinarian Fact Sheet (May 2017) – includes clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment,
- 2019 Bloom Season Outreach letter to Veterinarians from Interagency Working Group on Harmful Algal Bloom Related Illnesses (July 2019)
- 2018 Bloom Season Outreach letter to Veterinarians from Interagency Working Group on Harmful Algal Bloom Related Illnesses (April 2018)
- Bates (2018) review on Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) exposure in dogs
- Dreher et al. (2019) publication on a recent livestock poisoning event in Oregon
- Rankin et al. (2013) case report of successful treatment of microcystin poisoning
- Foss et al. (2019) publication on diagnosis of microcystin intoxication in dogs from Martin County, FL
- 2018 presentation on Lessons Learned from the 2018 Microcystin Poisoning of Dogs in Stuart, FL
The following resources are available for printing and distribution. Contact CyanoHAB.firstname.lastname@example.org limited hard copies or to request other resources of interest.
- 1-page Fact Sheet for Pet Owners (June 2018)
- CDC Pet Safety Poster
- CDC’s social media badges and buttons
- USEPA HABs Infographics to educate the public on HAB basics (customized for California)